How different or similar are Polish and Russian?
HISTORY OF THE POLISH AND RUSSIAN LANGUAGES
Poles and Russians share common traditions and a similar fate, especially for the forty years after World War II since they were living under a similar communist systems.
In the 19th century, Russian was still mostly spoken in urban areas, while the rural part of Russian Empire and later of the Soviet Union kept using their own local languages.
So what are the differences between Polish and Russian?
- One major obstacle to overcome is the different writing systems. Polish uses a Latin alphabet while Russian uses a Cyrillic alphabet.
zrobiłem, zrobiłeś, zrobił – сделал
zrobiłam, zrobiłaś, zrobiła – сделала
zrobiliśmy, zrobiliście, zrobili, zrobiłyśmy, zrobiłyście, zrobiły – сделали
In Russian, unlike in Polish, you need to use pronouns more often to make it clearer which person you are talking about, for example:
они (ru) means both oni (pl) and one (pl)
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Why Russian at times is closer to Polish than Ukrainian is
Sometimes it is said that Ukrainian is a ‘Polonized’ version of Russian. But let’s look at some examples where this is not the case.
- Look at this phrase, for example:
- А коли це було? (Ukrainian)
- A kiedy to było? (Polish)
- А когда это было? (Russian)
- When was it? (English)
Сестри (UKR) — siostry (PL) — сестры (RU) — sisters (EN)
Ніс (UKR) — nos (PL) — нос (RU) — nose (EN)
Їсти (UKR) — jeść (PL) — есть (RU) — eat (EN)
In Russian, there is the sound “G”. It is a breakthrough sound, the equivalent of the Latin “G-g”. In Polish – too. However, in Ukrainian, the same sound is pronounced as equivalent of the Latin “H-h”.